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Today we are going to talk about Italian Red wine and how to better understand what’s on the label. For many wine lovers this is one of those areas of the world that can be a bit daunting to understand, and that’s where I come in. It’s my job to help you better understand challenging wine topics so you can enjoy the wine that we talk about here on the show.
Okay let’s get started; Italy has been producing wine for 3,000 years. It is said that Italy is not a country, just a gigantic vineyard from North to South. There are over 2 thousand labels of wine in Italy, that’s a lot of bottles to know about. Did you know that since 2008 Italy reins as the largest producer of wine in the world?
We are not going to tackle all of Italy in one week. When it comes to red Italian wine there are three main regions to concentrate on first, Tuscany, Piedmont, and the Veneto regions.
There are literally hundreds of indigenous grape varietals planted throughout Italy, many which we have not ever heard of in America. The main grapes that a person needs to know about to get started with Italian wines from these three regions are; In Tuscany the Italians grow Sangiovese, in Piedmont they grow Nebbiolo, and in the Veneto region a grape known as Corvina is what is grown.
Many grape growers in Italy now are growing Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot. Many American viticulture areas of America likewise are growing Italian varietals of grapes too. Just to name a couple; In the Napa Valley some grape farmers are growing Barbara grapes, in Walla Walla some farmers grow Sangiovese grapes. Grape varietals know no boundaries; the worlds grape farmers now better understand ideal geography, weather, and soil composition that grape varietals thrive in.
Let’s take a look at how the Italian wine laws dictate what ends up in your Italian bottle of wine. Just like there are three Red wine regions to pay attention to first begin to understand Italian wines there are three Italian wine law designations one should understand as well.
Grape growers are governed by Italian law or what is known as the DOC – Denominazione di Origine Controllata and DOCG – Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita. You will see this printed on the label of Italian wines. There are many Italian wines that do not adhere to wine specifications within particular regions and these wines will be designated on their label as IGT – Indicazione Geografica.
DOC designations on a win bottle are much like that of French AOC wine laws, you will also see this designation on bottles of French wines. The biggest difference between the DOC and AOC is that the Italian DOC has aging requirements.
The DOC governs:
- Geographical limits of each region
- Grapes varieties allowed in wines
- The percentage of each grape used (Classico must be 80% Sangiovese) If the varietal is specified it must contain 85% of varietal
- The amount of grapes that can be grown and harvested per acre
- The minimum percentage of alcohol in a wine
- Minimum aging requirements. How much time a wine is aged in barrels or bottles
- These wine laws became effective in 1963 in Italy
The difference between the DOC and DOCG is that the G in DOCG indicates that a wine is stylistically guaranteed to meet the standards set forth in Italian wine laws for specific regions.
Currently there are 35 DOCG wines in Italy, 7 from the Tuscany region and 9 from the Piedmont region. There are over 300 DOC wines from Italy and many more wines that are designated IGT which just means they do not adhere to the standards set forth for a given region in which they are grown. There are many great examples of all of these wines and you typically pay for the guarantee. There are great IGT wines that do not adhere to the wine laws in the region or area in which they are grown, you just have to know what you are buying, but hey that’s why you keep me around.
Arrivederci for now wine friends, enjoy the great valued wine selections at the Market on Front. You will find these two terrific wine selections there, and many more.
The wines reviewed today all receive the WineGuyMike™ Seal of Approval™
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